尋找更肥沃的草原Seeking Greener Pastures

fifa手游任意球技巧:大型國際承包商,特別是歐洲承包商在亞洲、美洲尋找新市場-Large international contractors, particularly from Europe, are seeking new markets in Asia and the Americas

信息來源: 作者:Peter Reina and Gary J. Tulacz 翻譯:任敏 瀏覽數: 發布時間:2014-03-26


大型工程承包商在歐美停滯的市場中上演著你爭我搶的大戲,發展中國家諸如北非的大片優質市場則深陷政治動蕩的泥淖。盡管如此,承包商們仍然在許多其他的地區發現機遇,并且大部分企業在蕭條的市場中保持了自身的平穩。而從另一個側面來說,正有越來越多的承包商們在國際市場上推陳出新、試水嘗鮮。
Large international contractors are scrambling for work amid stagnant markets in Europe and the U.S., while other fertile markets in the developing world, such as North Africa, are mired in political upheaval. However, contractors are finding opportunities in other regions, and most are holding their own even in depressed markets. But it means more contractors are testing new waters in the international marketplace.
 
在全球新市場獲得成功的承包商數量與日俱增,恰好解釋了這次ENR決定擴充頂級國際工程承包商名錄的原因。現在,為彰顯承包商隊伍在國際市場蓬勃發展的事實,ENR225強排名在今年已經調整至250強。(實際上,1991年以前,ENR全球最大國際工程承包商排名也曾是250強,在1992年才精簡為225強。)
The growing number of contractors finding success in new global spots helps explain why ENR has decided to expand its list of top international contractors. Now, the list includes 250 top firms, up from 225, in recognition of the growing number of contractors flourishing in the international marketplace. (The ENR Top International Contractors list had been a Top 250 list until 1991, but it was cut back to a top 225 list in 1992.)
 
最新的ENR最大250家國際工程承包商排行榜,以各家公司過去一年在其所在國以外國家承建項目的營業收入為基礎,從而衡量出其在國際商業中的表現。同時,ENR將年度最大全球工程承包商排行榜也擴充至250強,這一排行榜的評價依據是以各家承包商在全世界所有地域的營業收入為準。
On the Top 250 International Contractors list, firms are ranked based on contracting revenue from projects outside of their home countries, measuring their presence in international commerce. ENR also has expanded its Top 250 Global Contractors list, which ranks contractors based on total worldwide contracting revenue, regardless of the projects’ locations.
 
ENR最大250家國際工程承包商2012年境外項目合同額總計為5110.5億美元,加上其各自在本國內的合同額總計8135.5億美元,上榜承包商承建的合同總額達到1.32萬億美元。
The ENR Top 250 International Contractors had $511.05 billion in contracting revenue in 2012 from projects outside their home countries, along with $813.55 billion in revenue from domestic projects, for a total contracting revenue of $1.32 trillion.
 
根據年度比較,2013年上榜的前225強國際工程承包商2012年的海外營業收入為5075億美元,與2012年225強國際工程承包商海外營業收入總額4530.2億美元相比,增幅為12%。
For year-to-year comparisons, the only revenue considered was from this year’s 225 largest international contractors. This year’s top 225 had international revenue of $507.50 billion in 2012, which represents a 12.0% increase over the $453.02 billion from last year’s Top 225.
 
基于區域市場分析,加拿大市場是今年的大贏家,根據全部上榜250強國際工程承包商的區域業績表現,加拿大市場國際項目合同增長33.6%。亞洲及澳洲的國際項目合同額增幅為23%,拉丁美洲市場增幅22%,美國市場增幅20%,中東市場增幅9%。而深陷金融困擾的歐洲市場則毫無懸念的增長乏力,增幅僅有0.3%。在非洲,盡管中南非市場份額增長2.5%,但在深受戰亂洗禮的北非市場則出現市場下滑,降幅達到10.5%。
On a regional basis, Canadian projects are the big winner, with a 33.6% increase among this year’s Top 225 list. International contracting revenue also was up 23.0% in Asia and Australia, 22.0% in Latin America, 20.0% in the U.S. and 9.0% in the Middle East. Not surprisingly, contracting revenue for the Top 225 contractors was relatively flat in financially strapped Europe, rising only 0.3%. And while contracting revenue rose 2.5% in central and southern Africa, it fell 10.5% in strife-torn northern Africa.
 
新的全球機遇
New World’ Opportunities
 
由于歐洲市場經歷長期停滯,很多大型歐洲承包商正在重塑戰略。如:總部在英國的貝爾福貝蒂(Balfour Beaty)公司執行總監(CEO)安德魯·麥克諾頓表示,公司正整合其自身在投資、建設和運營單元所具有的實力,以及旗下設于美國的柏誠(Parsons Brinckerhoff)公司的設計和管理技能,從而提供全生命周期服務。
With European markets working through a prolonged stagnation, many large European contractors are recasting their strategies. U.K.-based Balfour Beatty plc, for example, is combining the design and management skills of its U.S.-based Parsons Brinckerhoff subsidiary with the capabilities of its existing investment, construction and operations units to offer full life-cycle services, says CEO Andrew McNaughton.
 
貝爾福貝蒂戰略的一部分,就是在歐洲國家中賣掉旗下業務較為單一的鐵路設計公司。麥克諾頓解釋說,所有的公司都必須要能夠多元發展。
As part of that strategy, Balfour Beatty is selling its rail engineering business in European countries where it has no other businesses. “You have to be in more than one sector,” explains McNaughton.
 
法國布依格集團旗下的布依格建設的總裁兼首席執行官伊夫·加布里埃爾表示,他們同樣正在開發“盡可能長的價值鏈上的技術和經營”,從而推進本地及海外業務發展。他將公司在美國邁阿密獲得5.15億美元房地產開發合同歸功于公司的“定位綜合、高附加值工程”戰略。布依格通過PPP(公私聯營模式)在邁阿密承建港隧道工程從而在歐洲本土企業越來越青睞的美國市場獲得入場券。
France’s Bouygues Construction SA also is developing “skills and businesses over the longest possible value chain” to boost local and international business, says chairman and CEO Yves Gabriel. He attributes his firm’s win of a share in a $515-million real estate development contract in Miami to its strategy of “positioning ourselves on complex, high-value-added projects.” Bouygues used its presence on a public-private partnership (PPP) for the Miami Port tunnel project to gain entry to the U.S. market, which is attracting increasing numbers of European-based firms.
 
麥克諾頓表示,隨著該區域市場建設需求的不斷增加,美國市場將很有可能在2013年底成為貝爾福貝蒂公司的目標建設市場。同時他補充:作為一個“穩定的,資源驅動型市場”,加拿大將繼續成為貝爾福貝蒂公司的目標重點市場。
The U.S. “is probably going to become our target construction market at the end of the year” as construction demand picks up in regional markets, says McNaughton. As a “stable, resource-driven market,” Canada remains a key focus for Balfour Beatty, he adds.
 
萬喜集團總部在巴黎的萬喜建設公司總裁,讓·羅西說:“十有八九,美國將開始很多主要工程的建設。”萬喜目前正在以PPP模式承建美國肯塔基州和印第安納州之間承建俄亥俄東區道路、橋梁及隧道網工程。
“In all likelihood ... many major projects will be launched in the United States,” says Jean Rossi, president of Paris-based Vinci Construction SA. Vinci is working on the road, bridge and tunnel Ohio East End Crossing PPP projects between Kentucky and Indiana.
 
意大利的莫亞泰克尼蒙公司(Maire Tecnimont)對美國正在開發的頁巖油氣非常感興趣。莫亞泰克尼蒙公司總裁法布里奇奧·迪·阿瑪托說:“更低價格的額外燃氣供應使北美市場對于我們所有的油氣、石化及肥料業務板塊大額投資都極具吸引力。”
Italy’s Maire Tecnimont is particularly interested in the shale oil and gas developments under way in the U.S. “Additional gas supply volumes at lower prices are making the North American gas market really appealing for large downstream investments in each of our business units: oil and gas, petrochemicals and fertilizers,” says Chairman Fabrizio Di Amato.
 
總部在瑞典的斯堪斯卡(Skanska)總裁喬安·卡爾斯特姆表示,美國市場的“明確向好”也在歐洲公司之間引起了日益激烈的競爭。他補充道,歐洲公司通過在當地收購公司而在美國實現大幅增長。
The U.S. market “has definitely gone up,” attracting increasing competition from European firms, says Johan Karlström, CEO of Sweden-based Skanska. The European presence in the U.S. has grown substantially through local acquisitions, he adds.
 
歐洲之傷
European Blues
 
歐洲承包商對于美國市場的熱情一部分源于其所在的大西洋彼岸日益艱難的市場條件。布依格總裁加布里埃爾表示,“在東歐的投資受到歐盟資金削減及國民預算吃緊的雙重影響”,但是基于這些國家對于基礎設施的需求,在中長期來看仍有好的預期。
Europeans’ interest in the U.S. stems partly from the more difficult conditions on their side of the Atlantic. “Investment capacity in Eastern Europe is suffering from a reduction in European Union funding and stricter national budget constraints,” notes Gabriel. But demands for infrastructure “offer good prospects in the medium term.”
 
柏克德(Bechtel)旗下總部在倫敦的柏克德城市基礎設施總裁皮特·道森說,在東歐,柏克德在順利獲得阿爾巴尼亞、科索沃的大訂單后,將把市場目標鎖定在主要的高速公路上。但他同時表示,“現在的機會確實比以前要少”。
In Eastern Europe, Bechtel Inc. is targeting major highways following successful large contracts in countries, including Albania and Kosovo, says Peter Dawson, president of London-based Bechtel Civil Infrastructure. But “the opportunities are scarcer than they once were,” he adds.
 
柏克德在東歐的經歷并不是面面俱好。由于政府預算限制,柏克德終于在十年困境之后于今年在“雙方共同意愿”下終止了羅馬尼亞特蘭西瓦尼亞(Transylvanian)高速公路交鑰匙工程。道森惋嘆,415公路的道路建設僅完成“很小一部分”。
Bechtel’s Eastern European experience is not all good. Because of limited government budgets, Bechtel this year terminated “by mutual agreement” its Transylvanian motorway turnkey contract in Romania after 10 troubled years. Only “a small proportion” of the 415-kilometer job was completed, laments Dawson.
 
布依格的加布里埃爾表示,在西部歐洲,法國的市場需求在巴黎區域仍然保持穩健,但在其他省份已出現疲軟。盡管,布依格有條件的獲得了馬賽環城高速公路的大項目。
In western Europe, French demand in the Paris region remains strong but is weaker in the provinces, says Gabriel. However, the firm has conditionally won a major contract for the Marseilles beltway.
 
即使已經在英國長期扎根的承包商,前景也不容樂觀。貝爾福貝蒂CEO麥克諾頓表示,由于“在大型基礎設施項目的顯著減少”,貝爾福貝蒂的英國市場在去年縮水近20%。政府提振基礎設施建設的努力受到歡迎,但起效時間太長。“焦點還是要放在當地市場上”,他補充說。
But even for general contractors with a long U.K. presence, conditions are not rosy. With a “significant reduction in large infrastructure” work, Balfour Beatty’s U.K market has shrunk by 20% over the last year, says McNaughton. Government efforts to boost infrastructure are welcome but too long term. “The focus needs to be more on the local market,” he adds.
 
斯堪斯卡總裁卡爾斯特姆說,為籌備英國2015年大選已有越來越多的基礎設施投資對話正在展開,“但我們還沒有看到任何實質的內容。”正在蓬勃發展的英國是斯堪斯卡在斯堪的納維亞以外歐洲的主要市場??ǘ固嗇匪?,特別是挪威正在“基礎設施上投入大筆資金”,但是來自其他歐洲承包商的競爭也異常激烈。
There is increasing talk about infrastructure investment in the run-up to the 2015 U.K. elections, says Karlström, “but we haven’t really seen it materialize.” The U.K. is Skanska’s main European market outside Scandinavia, which is booming. Norway especially is spending “a lot of money on infrastructure,” he says, but competition from other Europeans is intensifying.
 
在中東和北非(MENA)市場,歐洲承包商同樣發現了新的動向。貝爾福貝蒂CEO麥克諾頓說:“我們發現增長的回歸”,甚至迪拜也“開始重新出現增長”。柏克德城市基礎設施總裁道森在發現很多區域商機,特別是在鐵路和城市快軌方面,但是他也表示市場的競爭相當激烈。一個柏克德聯營體上個月(2013年7月)在沙特首都利雅得中標一個含兩條利雅得城市快軌建設的100億美元交鑰匙工程。
European firms also are finding renewed activity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). “We are seeing growth coming back,” and even Dubai “is growing again,” says McNaughton. Dawson sees many regional opportunities, particularly in rail and metros, but the market is highly competitive, he says. A Bechtel consortium last month clinched a $10-billion turnkey contract for two lines of Riyadh’s new metro system.
 
萬喜在中東的主要市場在卡塔爾,目前萬喜在此地參與了一條20億美元城市軌道的工程項目。萬喜控制項目49%的股份,與由政府資金支持的卡塔爾迪亞爾共同組成合資企業,由卡塔爾迪亞爾主導。布依格建設的總裁兼首席執行官加布里埃爾說,受到籌辦2022年世界杯的刺激,卡塔爾“始終十分活躍”,“但我們也面臨更強的競爭與挑戰”。
Vinci’s primary Middle Eastern market is Qatar, where the firm has a share in a $2-billion metro contract. Vinci controls 49% of the joint venture with the sovereign wealth fund Qatari Diar, which leads the metro consortium. Fuelled by preparations for the 2022 World Cup, Qatar “remains very dynamic,” adds Gabriel. “But we face strong competition.”
 
盡管如此,一部分由于歐洲銀行?;某寤?,中東市場并不是100%充滿希望。韓國現代工程建設公司國際業務計劃團隊的總經理金永俊表示,目前中東及北非(MENA)市場是“EPC承包商的主要市場”,但是從歐洲銀行或其他金融機構為項目融資已變得日益艱難,導致這一地區很多重要項目的計劃擱淺。
Not all is promising in the Middle East, thanks in part to the European banking crisis. MENA is “the major market for [engineer-procure-construct] contractors these days,” says Kim, Yeon Joon, a manager on the international business planning team for Korea’s Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co. However, he says project financing from European banks and other financial institutions has become more difficult, halting plans for many major projects in the MENA region.
 
2008年的全球金融?;災卸諧≡斐閃搜現卮蚧?,這種負面效應至今仍可被感知??仆毓夜疲↘harafi)集團商業開發部主任約瑟夫·馬斯瓦德說,“政府將項目延期,銀行停止向承包商提供融資支持”。同時,他說,雖然銀行和金融機構現在重新開始放款,但是“獲得金融支持的資質要求變得更加嚴格”,并且在很多時候,借貸成本飛漲的驚人。
The global financial crisis in 2008 hit the Middle East hard, and its effects are still being felt. “Governments delayed projects, and banks halted providing financial support to the contractors,” says Yousef Maswadeh, director of business development for Kuwait’s Kharafi National. He says banks and financial institutions are lending again, but “the qualifications for obtaining financial aid have become more stringent” and, in many cases, the costs of borrowing have skyrocketed.
 
此外,很多中東北非(MENA)地區的承包商都感覺到來自歐洲承包商日益激烈的競爭。土耳其ANT雅皮(Yapi)公司董事默罕默德·奧卡指出“在土耳其,每過去一年,歐洲建筑公司對土耳其市場的興趣都在不斷俱增”
Further, many MENA-region contractors are feeling more competition from European contractors. “European construction firms [are showing] greater interest in Turkey every passing day,” says Mehmet Okay, board member of Turkey’s ANT Yapi.
 
盡管如此,奧卡表示他的公司在俄羅斯和獨聯體國家感受到較少的壓力。比如,在莫斯科的國際城市中心,ANT雅皮公司正在建設一棟85層的OKO城市大廈。同時,這家公司還在為俄羅斯索契2014冬季奧運會建設面積13萬平方英尺的賓館及公寓。
However, Okay says his firm is feeling less pressure in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. For example, ANT Yapi is building the 85-floor OKO City tower in the Moscow International City Center. The firm also is building 1.3 million sq ft of hotel and apartment space in the run-up to Russia’s 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.
 
北非的政治動蕩已導致很多大項目停滯??仆毓夜疲↘harafi)集團商業開發部主任馬斯瓦德表示除埃及以外,哈拉菲集團做到了遠離騷亂紛爭。他同時指出,“目前埃及的政治局勢將使很多以BOT和PPP模式進行開發的大型基礎設施項目延遲執行”。
Political unrest in North Africa has caused a pause in many major projects. Maswadeh says Kharafi National managed to avoid the turmoil except in Egypt. “The current political situation in Egypt might delay implementation of mega-infrastructure development projects” that rely on build-operate-transfer and PPP financing programs, he says.
 
利比亞是區域中另一關注焦點,但有一些承包商相信穩定已經開始回歸市場。印度邦扎勞埃德集團主席阿杜爾·邦扎說,“在利比亞,我們的經營確實感到了動亂的降溫,在此市場我們既承建有油氣工程也有基礎設施工程。我們很高興的發現這個國家的形式在好轉,并且我們已經開始調配人員重啟項目”。他同時表示,邦扎勞埃德集團希望在風險項目上成為領軍承包商。
Libya is another area of concern, but some contractors believe stability is beginning to return to the market. “Our operations did see a setback with upheaval in Libya, where we had both oil-and-gas and infrastructure projects. We are, however, happy to note that the situation is improving in the country, and we have started mobilizing manpower to resume projects,” says Atul Punj, chairman of India’s Punj Lloyd Group. He says that Punj Lloyd prefers to be the lead contractor on projects when risk is an issue.
 
東亞繼續成為建筑市場的重地。萬喜建設公司總裁羅西說,“整個東盟(ASEAN)區域都是我們公司增長的重要市場,特別是越南、印尼、緬甸和馬來西亞。”
East Asia remains a construction powerhouse. “The entire ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] zone is a growth area for our companies, in particular Vietnam, Indonesia, Burma and Malaysia,” notes Vinci’s Rossi.
 
柏克德集團將市場聚焦在交通和基礎設施“沒那么優先”,而以自然資源產業為重點的區域。柏克德的道森指出,“中國市場機遇在減少”,這部分源于“地方競爭力”的增強。
Bechtel focuses on natural-resource sectors in the region as transportation and infrastructure are “less of a priority,” he adds. “The number of opportunities in China has dropped” partly because of the growth of “local competence,” he says.
 
對于柏克德集團而言,印度既是其設計和采購基地也是一個本土化市場,特別是在煉油廠和石油化工方面。但是道森也表示“市場利潤相當微薄”。同時他說,金磚四國(BRIC)——巴西、俄羅斯、印度和中國市場總體上對承包商而言都“非常艱難”。
For Bechtel, India is a global engineering and procurement base as well as a local market, particularly in refineries and petrochemical. But “margins are very thin,” says Dawson. The BRIC countries—Brazil, Russia, India and China—are, in general, “very tough” for contractors, he adds.
 
印度的拉森&土布羅(Larsen & Toubro)公司高級執行副總裁蘇布拉馬尼亞恩(Subrahmanyan)表示,“受到城市化和基礎設施增長的不可逆驅動,印度和中國將繼續是最重要的建筑市場”,“印度,中國和中東”國家的基礎設施嚴重缺乏,加上政府政策的供給意愿,將進一步快速發展”。
“India and China will continue to be the most important construction markets, driven primarily by the irreversible forces of urbanization and infrastructure growth,” says S.N. Subrahmanyan, senior executive vice president of India’s Larsen & Toubro Ltd. India and China, as well as the Middle East, “are expected to grow rapidly in face of the huge infrastructure deficits faced by such countries, coupled with their governments’ policy initiative to deliver.”
 
盡管如此,蘇布拉馬尼亞恩警告國際承包商在積極發展多地業務的同時應注意國家間政策環境的較大差異。他說“多地域且設置高壁壘的市場也會有更可觀的政策風險”。
However, Subrahmanyan warns that many international contractors rushing to find geographic diversity have to be aware of widely different regulatory climates from nation to nation. There are “considerable regulatory risks of working in diverse geographies with relatively high entry barriers,” he says.
 
貝爾福貝蒂的麥克諾頓發現印度的電力和鐵路都是“令人著迷的市場”。但是打入印度市場是一個“長時間的游戲”。其他公司也對此市場持長期態度。萬喜的羅西解釋說,在印度這樣對基礎設施需求極大的國家,我們需要了解印度文化才能把自身定位到對的項目上。
McNaughton finds India to be “a fascinating market” in power and rail sectors. But tackling the Indian market is a “very long game.” Other firms are also taking a long view on the market. “We are getting to learn about Indian culture in order to position ourselves on the right projects in a country where infrastructure needs are enormous,” explains Rossi.
 
拉美繼續吸引著國際的目光,盡管競爭十分激烈。柏克德的道森說,這個地區的很多行業領域都有良好的市場機會,對柏克德充滿吸引力。柏克德設在智利的辦公室是其最大的工程辦公室之一,同時柏克德對巴西,哥倫比亞和秘魯等國市場也持樂觀態度。
Latin America continues to attract growing international interest, although the competition is tough. The region offers many opportunities across a range of sectors that are interesting to Bechtel, says Dawson. While one of Bechtel’s largest engineering offices is in Chile, it is also optimistic about other countries, including Brazil, Colombia and Peru.
 
萬喜的羅西表示,萬喜對于在墨西哥,哥倫比亞,秘魯和智利等地開展經營充滿興趣,在智利,萬喜正在修建一條“世界上最大的地下銅礦”隧道項目。
Vinci is particularly interested in developing businesses in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Chile, where it is building a tunnel for “the world’s largest underground copper mine,” according to Rossi.
 
布依格2013年進入了巴西市場,他與當地合作伙伴共同贏得了里約熱內盧的一個酒店項目。布依格的加布里埃爾同樣對秘魯,哥倫比亞,特立尼達和多巴哥等市場表示了濃厚興趣。貝爾福貝蒂的麥克諾頓說,巴爾福貝蒂已有“一個小團隊”在巴西偵查項目管理、投資和項目運營維護的市場機會。
Bouygues entered the Brazilian market this year, winning a hotel contract in Rio de Janeiro with a local partner. Gabriel also expresses interest in Peru, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago. Balfour Beatty has “a small team” in Brazil scouting out project management, investment and operations-and-maintenance opportunities, says McNaughton.
 
如果將非洲寫成一個國際建設市場,非洲在各公司管理者心目中的預期已經提高。萬喜的羅西基于公司在貝寧獲得的管道項目,在多哥獲得的港口項目和在喀麥隆獲得的大橋項目,表示非洲的“增長依然保持強勁”。
Once generally written off as an international construction market, Africa has risen in executives’ expectations. “Growth has remained very robust,” notes Rossi, citing among Vinci’s wins pipelines in Benin, a port in Togo and a bridge in Cameroon.
 
柏克德對非洲市場“看漲”,道森認為,當地政府正在日益變得民主并且“愿意為他們的人民作出投入”。他相信“在未來10年中,我們將可以像10到15年前談論中東市場那樣討論撒哈拉以南的非洲”。
Bechtel is “very bullish” about Africa, where governments increasingly are becoming more democratic and “want to invest in their people,” says Dawson. “In 10 years, we will be talking about sub-Saharan Africa in the same way we talked about the Middle East 10 to 15 years ago,” he believes.